The Firm renders service to clients on retainer or non-retainer basis. For each retainer client, a monthly fee is fixed under a standard retainer agreement. The retainer agreement covers general counseling and retainer services and, subject to a separate fee arrangement, includes the services of director(s) and/or corporate secretary.

Special services, which generally refer to those that require extensive negotiations, research or documentation, or those, that involve litigation or adversarial proceedings or representation before judicial, quasi-judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, fall outside the scope of the retainer agreement. Such special services, whether for retainer or for non-retainer clients, are subject to pre-agreed fee arrangements (usually based on the actual time involvement of the handling lawyers) set forth in a special engagement letter.

Non-retainer clients are those who, without being retainer clients, engage the Firm for specific special services. It is not uncommon for such clients to engage the Firm on a retainer basis after the completion of the special arrangement



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